Crystallization of high-strength nano-scale leucite glass-ceramics

A. Theocharopoulos, X. Chen, R. M. Wilson, R. Hill, M. J. Cattell

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


    Objectives Fine-grained, high strength, translucent leucite dental glass-ceramics are synthesized via controlled crystallization of finely milled glass powders. The objectives of this study were to utilize high speed planetary milling of an aluminosilicate glass for controlled surface crystallization of nano-scale leucite glass-ceramics and to test the biaxial flexural strength. Methods An aluminosilicate glass was synthesized, attritor or planetary milled and heat-treated. Glasses and glass-ceramics were characterized using particle size analysis, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Experimental (fine and nanoscale) and commercial (Ceramco-3, IPS Empress Esthetic) leucite glass-ceramics were tested using the biaxial flexural strength (BFS) test. Gaussian and Weibull statistics were applied. Results Experimental planetary milled glass-ceramics showed an increased leucite crystal number and nano-scale median crystal sizes (0.048-0.055 μm2) as a result of glass particle size reduction and heat treatments. Experimental materials had significantly (p <0.05) higher mean BFS and characteristic strength values than the commercial materials. Attritor milled and planetary milled (2 h) materials showed no significant (p > 0.05) strength difference. All other groups' mean BFS and characteristic strengths were found to be significantly different (p <0.05) to each other. The mean (SD) MPa strengths measured were: Attritor milled: 252.4 (38.7), Planetary milled: 225.4 (41.8) [4 h milling] 255.0 (35.0) [2 h milling], Ceramco-3: 75.7 (6.8) and IPS Empress: 165.5 (30.6). Significance Planetary milling enabled synthesis of nano-scale leucite glass-ceramics with high flexural strength. These materials may help to reduce problems associated with brittle fracture of all-ceramic restorations and give reduced enamel wear. © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1149-1157
    Number of pages8
    JournalDental Materials
    Issue number11
    Publication statusPublished - Nov 2013


    • Attritor
    • Flexural strength
    • Microstructure
    • Nano
    • Nanoscale
    • Planetary


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