Current Evidence for Immune Checkpoint Inhibition in Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Victoria Foy, Mairead Mcnamara, Juan Valle, Angela Lamarca, Julien Edeline, Richard Hubner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The treatment of advanced unresectable HCC (aHCC) remains a clinical challenge, with limited therapeutic options and poor prognosis. The results of IMbrave150 and HIMALAYA have changed the treatment paradigm for HCC and established immune checkpoint inhibition (ICI), either combined with anti-angiogenic therapy or dual ICI, as preferred first-line therapy for eligible patients with aHCC. Numerous other combination regimens involving ICI are under investigation with the aim of improving the tumour response and survival of patients with all stages of HCC. This review will explore the current evidence for ICI in patients with advanced HCC and discuss future directions, including the unmet clinical need for predictive biomarkers to facilitate patient selection, the effects of cirrhosis aetiology on response to ICI, and the safety of its use in patients with impaired liver function.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8665-8685
Number of pages21
JournalCurrent Oncology
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 21 Sept 2023


  • ICI
  • HCC
  • PD-L1
  • PD-1
  • immunotherapy
  • biomarkers


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