Demographic and Clinical Correlates of Patient-Reported Improvement in Sex Drive, Erectile Function, and Energy With Testosterone Solution 2%

Frederick Wu, Michael Zitzmann, Darell Heiselman, Craig Donatucci, Jack Knorr, Ankur B. Patel, Kraig Kinchen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Introduction Evidence from well-designed studies documenting the benefit of testosterone replacement therapy as a function of patient demographic and clinical characteristics is lacking. Aim To determine demographic and clinical predictors of treatment outcomes in hypogonadal men with low sex drive, low energy, and/or erectile dysfunction. Methods Post hoc analysis of a randomized, multicenter, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, 16-week study of 715 hypogonadal men (mean age = 55.3 years, age range = 19–92 years) presenting with low sex drive and/or low energy who received placebo or testosterone solution 2% for 12 weeks. Main Outcomes and Measures Two levels defined patient-reported improvement (PRI) in sex drive or energy: level 1 was at least “a little better” and level 2 was at least “much better” in energy or sex drive on the Patient Global Impression of Improvement at study end point. PRI in erectile function was stratified by erectile dysfunction severity at baseline as measured by the erectile function domain of the International Index for Erectile Function: mild at baseline (change of 2), moderate at baseline (change of 5), and severe at baseline (change of 7). Associations of demographic and clinical characteristics with PRI were calculated with stepwise forward multiple logistic regression analysis. Odds ratios represented the likelihood of PRI in symptoms among variable categories. Results Higher levels of end-point testosterone were associated with higher rates of PRI (at levels 1 and 2) in sex drive and energy (P <.001 for the two comparisons). Lower baseline testosterone levels were associated with higher rates of level 1 PRI in sex drive (P =.028); and classic hypogonadism (vs non-classic hypogonadism) was associated with higher rates of level 2 PRI in sex drive (P =.005) and energy (P =.006). Conclusion When assessing the potential for improvements in men with testosterone deficiency using patient-reported outcome questionnaires, possible predictors of treatment outcomes to consider include the etiology of hypogonadism and testosterone levels (baseline and end point).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1212-1219
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Sexual Medicine
Issue number8
Early online date18 Jun 2016
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2016


  • Androgen Deficiency
  • Energy
  • Hypogonadism
  • Sexual Desire
  • Testosterone Replacement Therapy


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