Determinants of immunization status among 12- to 23-month-old children in Indonesia (2008-2013): a multilevel analysis

Holipah, Asri Maharani, Yoshiki Kuroda

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Immunization is one of the most cost-effective public health interventions to prevent children from contracting vaccine-preventable diseases. Indonesia launched the Expanded Program for Immunization (EPI) in 1977. However, immunization coverage remains far below the United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF) and World Health Organization (WHO) target of 80%. This study aims to investigate the determinants of complete immunization status among children aged 12–23 months in Indonesia.


We used three waves of the Indonesian National Socioeconomic Survey (2008, 2011, and 2013) and national village censuses from the same years. Multilevel logistic regression was used to conduct the analysis.


The number of immunized children increased from 47.48% in 2008 to 61.83% in 2013. The presence of health professionals, having an older mother, and having more educated mothers were associated with a higher probability of a child’s receiving full immunization. Increasing the numbers of hospitals, village health posts, and health workers was positively associated with children receiving full immunization. The MOR (median odds ratio) showed that children’s likelihood of receiving complete immunization varied significantly among districts.


Both household- and district-level determinants were found to be associated with childhood immunization status. Policy makers may take these determinants into account to increase immunization coverage in Indonesia.
Original languageEnglish
JournalBMC Public Health
Issue number288
Publication statusPublished - 27 Feb 2018


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