Determination of the Preassembled Nucleating Units That Are Critical for the Crystal Growth of the Metal?Organic Framework CdIF-4

R. Wagia, I. Strashnov, M.W. Anderson, M.P. Attfield

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Identifying the form and role of the chemical species that traverse the stages of crystallization is critical to understanding the formation process of coordination polymers. Herein, we report the combined use of in situ atomic force microscopy and mass spectrometry to identify preformed, complex, cadmium 2-ethylimidazole containing solution species in the growth solution of the cadmium 2-ethylimidazolate metal–organic framework CdIF-4, and show that they are critical in the surface nucleation for the crystal growth of this material. Surface nucleation appears to be instigated by these [Cdx(CH3CO2)y(C5H7N2/C5H8N2)z]-containing solution species and not by sole addition of the ligand molecules. The CH3CO2− or Cd(CH3CO2)2 groups of the former are substituted subsequently as the framework growth proceeds. Our greater understanding of such solution species and their role in crystallization will guide future syntheses of designed functional coordination polymers.
Original languageUndefined
Pages (from-to)9075-9079
Number of pages5
JournalAngewandte Chemie - International Edition
Issue number31
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2016

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