Development and application of wall-function treatments for turbulent forced and mixed convection flows

Tim J. Craft, S. E. Gant, A. V. Gerasimov, H. Iacovides, B. E. Launder

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


    CFD calculations of turbulent flow near smooth walls generally employ one of two broad strategies to resolve the very influential, complex, but thin near-wall viscosity-affected sub-layer. One approach uses a fine numerical mesh and a turbulence model incorporating viscous influences; the other employs "wall functions"- Formulae that attempt to account for the overall resistance of the sublayer to momentum and heat transport. The latter requires only a fraction of the computational effort of the former and is thus strongly favoured for industrial calculations. However, the wall-function performance is often poor, partly because of inappropriate implementations and partly because the schemes themselves have inherent limitations. The present paper reviews the evolution of wall-function strategies. Attention is then given to two new schemes developed by the authors, one based on an analytical treatment and the other on a numerical resolution of the near-wall sub-layer. Several applications are shown of mixed and forced convection. © 2005 The Japan Society of Fluid Mechanics and Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)127-144
    Number of pages17
    JournalFluid Dynamics Research
    Issue number2-3
    Publication statusPublished - Feb 2006


    • Heat transfer
    • Near-wall turbulence modelling
    • Wall functions


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