Development and evaluation of a questionnaire to assess knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors towards hearing loss prevention

Gabrielle H Saunders, Serena M Dann, Susan E Griest, Melissa T Frederick

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: To develop and evaluate a questionnaire assessing knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors (KAB) as they pertain to hearing conservation, using the constructs of the health belief model (HBM).

Design: The KAB was completed by 235 participants. Relationships between knowledge and attitudes about hearing and hearing conservation, participation in noisy activities, and use of hearing protection were examined.

Study sample: 117 males and 118 females aged between 18 and 80 years (mean = 42.3, SD = 4.1) recruited from the Portland VA Medical Center, local universities, and a community college.

Results: Knowledge scores ranged from 15.6% to 93.8%. Factor analyses revealed six attitude factors, interpreted as measuring perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, perceived self-efficacy, and cues to action. Over 95% of participants routinely participated in at least one noisy activity but few used hearing protection while doing so. The attitude scores of individuals who used hearing protection differed significantly from the scores of those who did not.

Conclusions: Significant relationships between use of hearing protection and scores on the KAB provide validation that the HBM is a valuable framework for understanding hearing health behaviors, and evidence that the KAB is a valid tool for assessing these attitudes and behaviors.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)209-18
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Audiology
Issue number4
Early online date27 Jan 2014
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2014


  • adolescent
  • adult
  • aged
  • aged, 80 and over
  • culture
  • ear protective devices
  • female
  • health behavior
  • health knowledge, attitudes, practice
  • hearing loss/etiology
  • humans
  • life style
  • male
  • middle aged
  • noise/adverse effects
  • perception
  • preventive health services/methods
  • protective factors
  • reproducibility of results
  • risk factors
  • risk reduction behavior
  • surveys and questionnaires
  • young adult


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