Development and testing of a bespoke cultural intervention to support healthcare professionals with patients from a diverse background

Ashwini Deshmukh, Lisa Roberts, Adewale Adebajo, Atiya Kamal, Christopher J. Armitage, Felicity Evison, Helen Bunting, Shirish Dubey, Arumugam Moorthy, Joti Reehal, Nisha Dogra, Kanta Kumar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: Development and test of a culturally sensitive intervention for rheumatology healthcare professionals (HCPs).

Methods: Using a before and after study design, fifteen HCPs were recruited to undertake the bespoke intervention from four NHS sites across England, in areas serving a diverse population. The intervention was evaluated using the validated outcomes: [1] Patient Reported Physician Cultural Competency (PRPCC); and [2] Patient Enablement Instrument (PEI), measuring patients’ perceptions of their overall healthcare delivery. Additionally, HCPs completed the Capability COM-B questionnaire (C), Opportunity (O) and Motivation (M) to perform Behaviour (B), measuring behaviour change.

Results: 200 patients were recruited before HCPs undertook the intervention (cohort 1), and 200 were recruited after (cohort 2) from fifteen HCPs, after exclusions 178 patients remained in cohort 1 and 186 in cohort 2. Patients identifying as White in both recruited cohorts were 60% compared to 29% and 33% of patients (cohorts 1 and 2 respectively) who identified as of South Asian origin. After the intervention, the COM-B scores indicated HCPs felt more skilled and equipped for consultations. No significant differences were noted in the average overall cultural competency score between the two cohorts in White patients (57.3 vs 56.8, p=0.8), however, in the South Asian cohort, there was a statistically significant improvement in mean scores (64.1 vs 56.7, p=0.014). Overall, the enablement score also showed a statistically significant improvement following intervention (7.3 vs 4.3, p<0.001) in the White patients; and in the South Asian patients (8.0 vs 2.2, p<0.001).

This novel study provides evidence for improving cultural competency and patient enablement in rheumatology settings.
Original languageEnglish
Publication statusPublished - 28 Jul 2023


  • ethnicity
  • education
  • cultural competency
  • clinical outcomes


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