Monitoring endogenous biomarkers is increasingly used to evaluate transporter-mediated drug-drug interactions (DDIs) in early drug development and may be applied to elucidate changes in transporter activity in disease. 4-pyridoxic acid (PDA) has been identified as the most sensitive plasma endogenous biomarker of renal organic anion transporters (OAT1/3). Increase in PDA baseline concentrations was observed after administration of probenecid, a strong clinical inhibitor of OAT1/3 and also in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. The aim of this study was to develop and verify a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model of PDA, to predict the magnitude of probenecid DDI and predict the CKD-related changes in PDA baseline. PBPK model for PDA was first developed in healthy population, building on from previous population pharmacokinetic modelling, and incorporating a mechanistic kidney model to consider OAT1/3-mediated renal secretion. Probenecid PBPK model was adapted from the Simcyp database and re-verified to capture its dose-dependent pharmacokinetics (n=9 studies). The PBPK model successfully predicted the PDA plasma concentrations, area under the curve and renal clearance in healthy subjects at baseline and after single/multiple probenecid doses. Prospective simulations in severe CKD predicted successfully the increase in PDA plasma concentration relative to healthy (within two-fold of observed data) after accounting for 60% increase to fraction unbound in plasma and additional 50% decline in OAT1/3 activity beyond the decrease in glomerular filtration rate. The verified PDA PBPK model supports future robust evaluation of OAT1/3 DDI in drug development and increases our confidence in predicting exposure and renal secretion in CKD patients.
- Drug-drug interaction
- Endogenous Biomarker
- Chronic Kidney Disease
- Physiologically-based Pharmacokinetic Modelling
- Organic Anion Transporters