Dissolved gas analysis (DGA) is considered as one of the most effective techniques to diagnose transformer incipient faults. With the increasing applications of alternative liquids in transformers, fault gas generation characteristics of the liquids were investigated in laboratory under simulated faults. Immersed heating method has been widely used to simulate thermal faults, of which the complete fault temperature range was hardly achieved. In this paper, pool boiling theory was introduced to explain the underlying reason that why the complete fault temperature range cannot be achieved using immersed heating method. There are three stages in pool boiling including natural convection region, nucleate boiling region and film boiling region. The Nukiyama temperature of a mineral oil was found to be 330°C. This is the highest stable temperature achieved by the immersed heating method in T2 region, beyond which the heating element temperature is unstable and hence temperature measurement is unreliable. The Nukiyama temperature of an ester liquid was found to be 390°C, which is higher than that of the mineral oil due to its higher boiling point. The findings imply that the previously published T2 DGA results obtained using immersed heating method at reported temperatures beyond the Nukiyama temperature have likely been in T3 region near to the melting temperature of the heating element (normally higher than 1000°C).
|Journal||IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation|
|Early online date||8 Oct 2018|
|Publication status||Published - Oct 2018|