Distinct N-terminal regulatory domains of Ca2+/H+ antiporters

Jon K. Pittman, Coimbatore S. Sreevidya, Toshiro Shigaki, Hanayo Ueoka-Nakanishi, Kendal D. Hirschi

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


    The regulation of intracellular Ca2+ levels is achieved in part by high-capacity vacuolar Ca2+/H+ antiporters. An N-terminal regulatory region (NRR) on the Arabidopsis Ca2+/H+ antiporter CAX1 (cation exchanger 1) has been shown previously to regulate Ca2+ transport by a mechanism of N-terminal auto-inhibition. Here, we examine the regulation of other CAX transporters, both within Arabidopsis and from another plant, mung bean (Vigna radiata), to ascertain if this mechanism is commonly used among Ca2+/H+ antiporters. Biochemical analysis of mung bean VCAX1 expressed in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) showed that N-terminal truncated VCAX1 had approximately 70% greater antiport activity compared with full-length VCAX1. A synthetic peptide corresponding to the NRR of CAX1, which can strongly inhibit Ca2+ transport by CAX1, could not dramatically inhibit Ca2+ transport by truncated VCAX1. The N terminus of Arabidopsis CAX3 was also shown to contain an NRR. Additions of either the CAX3 or VCAX1 regulatory regions to the N terminus of an N-terminal truncated CAX1 failed to inhibit CAX1 activity. When fused to N-terminal truncated CAX1, both the CAX3 and VCAX1 regulatory regions could only auto-inhibit CAX1 after mutagenesis of specific amino acids within this NRR region. These findings demonstrate that N-terminal regulation is present in other plant CAX transporters, and suggest distinct regulatory features among these transporters.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1054-1062
    Number of pages8
    JournalPlant Physiology
    Issue number2
    Publication statusPublished - Oct 2002


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