Distributed control of a virtual storage plant for frequency restoration services: An experimental validation

Matej Krpan, Xiao Wang, Mateo Beus, Alessandra Parisio, Igor Kuzle

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

This paper presents the results, insights and challenges of a small-scale laboratory implementation of a virtual storage plant (VSP) and the distributed control of its portfolio for frequency restoration services. The proposed framework has been experimentally validated using a controller-hardware-inthe-loop setup consisting of 5 battery storage systems, a hydraulic turbinegenerator and a real-time digital simulator. The results show that the performance of the VSP whose assets are controlled by the proposed framework is compliant with the grid code requirements regarding manual and automatic frequency restoration service. Furthermore, this paper reveals novel insight into the practical implementation challenges of consensus-based distributed control due to time delays and communication synchronization. Keywords: dispatching, distributed control, frequency control, hardware-in-the-loop, virtual storage plant, frequency restoration, multi-agent consensus
Original languageEnglish
Article number110031
JournalInternational Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems
Volume159
Early online date17 May 2024
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 17 May 2024

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