Distributed Control of Battery Energy Storage Systems for Improved Frequency Regulation

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In this paper a distributed control strategy for coordinating multiple battery energy storage systems to support frequency regulation in power systems with high penetration of renewable generation is proposed. The approach is based on an online convex optimisation framework that considers both the operating costs of storage systems and the frequency regulation requirements. The proposed framework uses a dynamic regret based on the last available information up to the current point in time of renewable generation and demand, which are uncertainty sources. The approach provides more accurate control than the currently employed prediction-based algorithms and it can be implemented in a distributed manner using a multi-agent system framework that facilitates plug-and-play functionality. The effectiveness and scalability of the proposed strategy is assessed through several case studies.
Original languageEnglish
Article number8999747
Pages (from-to)3729-3738
Number of pages10
JournalI E E E Transactions on Power Systems
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 14 Feb 2020


  • Distributed optimisation
  • frequency response
  • online convex optimisation
  • battery energy storage systems
  • frequency-related constraints
  • uncertain renewable generation


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