Drug Metabolism by Cytochrome P450 Enzymes: What Distinguishes the Pathways Leading to Substrate Hydroxylation Over Desaturation?

Ji Li, Abayomi S. Faponle, Matthew G. Quesne, Mala A. Sainna, Jing Zhang, Alicja Franke, Devesh Kumar, Rudi van Eldik, Weiping Liu, Samuel De Visser

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    Abstract

    Cytochrome P450 enzymes are highly versatile biological catalysts in our body that react with a broad range of substrates. Key functions in the liver include the metabolism of drugs and xenobiotics. One particular metabolic pathway that is poorly understood relates to the P450 activation of aliphatic groups leading to either hydroxylation or desaturation pathways. A DFT and QM/MM study has been carried out on the factors that determine the regioselectivity of aliphatic hydroxylation over desaturation of compounds by P450 isozymes. The calculations establish multistate reactivity patterns, whereby the product distributions differ on each of the spin-state surfaces; hence spin-selective product formation was found. The electronic and thermochemical factors that determine the bifurcation pathways were analysed and a model that predicts the regioselectivity of aliphatic hydroxylation over desaturation pathways was established from valence bond and molecular orbital theories. Thus, the difference in energy of the O[BOND]H versus the O[BOND]C bond formed and the π-conjugation energy determines the degree of desaturation products. In addition, environmental effects of the substrate binding pocket that affect the regioselectivities were identified. These studies imply that bioengineering P450 isozymes for desaturation reactions will have to include modifications in the substrate binding pocket to restrict the hydroxylation rebound reaction.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)9083-9092
    Number of pages9
    JournalChemistry: A European Journal
    Volume21
    Issue number25
    Early online date29 Apr 2015
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 3 Jun 2015

    Keywords

    • QM/MM
    • DFT
    • P450

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