Early class III protraction facemask treatment reduces the need for orthognathic surgery: a multi-centre, two-arm parallel randomized, controlled trial

Nicky Mandall, Richard Cousley, Andrew DiBiase, Fiona Dyer, Simon Littlewood, Rye Mattick, Spencer J. Nute, Barbara Doherty, Nadia Stivaros, Ross McDowall, Inderjit Shargill, Helen V. Worthington

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Objective: To evaluate whether patients who had received early class III protraction facemask treatment were less likely to need orthognathic surgery compared with untreated controls. This paper is a 6-year follow-up of a previous clinical trial. Design: Multi-centre 2-arm parallel randomized controlled trial. Setting: Eight United Kingdom hospital orthodontic departments. Participants: Seventy three 7- to 9–year-old children. Method: Patients were randomly allocated, stratified for gender, into an early class III protraction facemask group (PFG) (n = 35) and a control/no treatment group (CG) (n = 38). The primary outcome, need for orthognathic surgery was assessed by panel consensus. Secondary outcomes were changed in skeletal pattern, overjet, Peer Assessment Rating (PAR), self-esteem and the oral aesthetic impact of malocclusion. The data were compared between baseline (DC1) and 6-year follow-up (DC4). A per-protocol analysis was carried out with n = 32 in the CG and n = 33 in the PFG. Results: Thirty six percent of the PFG needed orthognathic surgery, compared with 66% of the CG (P = 0.027). The odds of needing surgery was 3.5 times more likely when protraction facemask treatment was not used (odds ratio = 3.34 95% CI 1.21–9.24). The PFG exhibited a clockwise rotation and the CG an anti-clockwise rotation in the maxilla (regression coefficient 8.24 (SE 0.75); 95% CI 6.73–9.75; P < 0.001) and the mandible (regression coefficient 6.72 (SE 0.73); 95% CI 5.27–8.18; P < 0.001). Sixty eight per cent of the PFG maintained a positive overjet at 6-year follow-up. There were no statistically significant differences between the PFG and CG for skeletal/occlusal improvement, self-esteem or oral aesthetic impact. Conclusions: Early class III protraction facemask treatment reduces the need for orthognathic surgery. However, this effect cannot be explained by the maintenance of skeletal cephalometric change.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)164-175
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Orthodontics
Volume43
Issue number3
Early online date26 Aug 2016
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016

Keywords

  • Class III
  • interceptive treatment
  • orthognathic surgery
  • protraction facemask

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