Effect of etching time and resin bond on the flexural strength of IPS e.max Press glass ceramic

Luo Xiaoping, Ren Dongfeng, Nick Silikas

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


    Objective: To evaluate the effect of hydrofluoric acid (HFA) etching time and resin cement bond on the flexural strength of IPS e.max® Press glass ceramic. Methods: Two hundred and ten bars, 25 mm × 3 mm × 2 mm, were made from IPS e.max® Press ingots through lost-wax, hot-pressed ceramic fabrication technology and randomly divided into five groups with forty-two per group after polishing. The ceramic surfaces of different groups were etched by 9.5% hydrofluoric acid gel for 0, 20, 40, 60 and 120 s respectively. Two specimens of each group were selected randomly to examine the surface roughness and 3-dimensional topography with atomic force microscope (AFM), and microstructure was analyzed by the field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). Then each group were subdivided into two subgroups (n = 20). One subgroup of this material was selected to receive a thin (approximately 0.1 mm) layer of resin luting agent (Variolink N) whereas the other subgroup remained unaltered. Half of subgroup's specimens were thermocycled 10,000 times before a 3-point bending test in order to determine the flexural strength. Interface between resin cement and ceramic was examined with field emission scanning electronic microscope. Results: Roughness values increased with increasing etching time. The mean flexural strength values of group 0 s, 20 s, 40 s, 60 s and 120 s were 384 ± 33, 347 ± 43, 330 ± 53, 327 ± 67 and 317 ± 41 MPa respectively. Increasing HF etching times reduced the mean flexural strength (p <0.05). However, the mean flexural strength of each group, except group 0 s, increased significantly to 420 ± 31, 435 ± 50, 400 ± 39 and 412 ± 58 MPa after the application of dual-curing resin cement. In the present investigation, no significant differences after thermocycling on the flexural strengths were evident. Significance: Overtime HF etching could have a wakening effect on IPS e.max® Press glass ceramic, but resin cement bonding to appropriately etched surface would strengthen the dental ceramic. © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials.
    Original languageEnglish
    JournalDental Materials
    Publication statusPublished - 2014


    • Flexural strength
    • Glass ceramic
    • Hydrofluoric acid
    • Resin cement
    • SEM


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