Effects of Developmental Hypoxia on the Vertebrate Cardiovascular System

Gina L.j. Galli, Mitchell C. Lock, Kerri L.m. Smith, Dino A. Giussani, Dane A. Crossley

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

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Developmental hypoxia has profound and persistent effects on the vertebrate cardiovascular system, but the nature, magnitude and long-term outcome of the hypoxic consequences are species-specific. Here we aim to identify common and novel cardiovascular responses among vertebrates that encounter developmental hypoxia, and we discuss the possible medical and ecological implications.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)53-62
Issue number2
Early online date1 Nov 2022
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2023


  • embryo
  • fetus
  • heart
  • hypoxia
  • programming


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