Effects of fetal antiepileptic drug exposure: Outcomes at age 4.5 years

K. J. Meador, G. A. Baker, N. Browning, M. J. Cohen, R. L. Bromley, J. Clayton-Smith, L. A. Kalayjian, A. Kanner, J. D. Liporace, P. B. Pennell, M. Privitera, D. W. Loring

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    Abstract

    Objective: To examine outcomes at age 4.5 years and compare to earlier ages in children with fetal antiepileptic drug (AED) exposure. Methods: The NEAD Study is an ongoing prospective observational multicenter study, which enrolled pregnant women with epilepsy on AED monotherapy (1999-2004) to determine if differential long-term neurodevelopmental effects exist across 4 commonly used AEDs (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, phenytoin, or valproate). The primary outcome is IQ at 6 years of age. Planned analyses were conducted using Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID at age 2) and Differential Ability Scale (IQ at ages 3 and 4.5). Results: Multivariate intent-to-treat (n = 310) and completer (n = 209) analyses of age 4.5 IQ revealed significant effects for AED group. IQ for children exposed to valproate was lower than each other AED. Adjusted means (95% confidence intervals) were carbamazepine 106 (102- 109), lamotrigine 106 (102-109), phenytoin 105 (102-109), valproate 96 (91-100). IQ was negatively associated with valproate dose, but not other AEDs. Maternal IQ correlated with child IQ for children exposed to the other AEDs, but not valproate. Age 4.5 IQ correlated with age 2 BSID and age 3 IQ. Frequency of marked intellectual impairment diminished with age except for valproate (10% with IQ
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1207-1214
    Number of pages7
    JournalNeurology
    Volume78
    Issue number16
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 17 Apr 2012

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