The key role of the bacterial ribosome makes it an important target for antibacterial agents. Indeed, a large number of clinically useful antibiotics target this complex translational ribonucleoprotein machinery. Unfortunately, the development of resistant bacterial strains has compromised the effectiveness of most classes of antibacterial agent, including the classes that target the ribosome. Combinations of two or more drugs can be used to help overcome resistance, and in certain circumstances their action may be synergistic. In this study we have used proteomic techniques to establish the effects of gentamicin on the proteomes of aerobic and oxygen-limited Escherichia coli. Ribosomal proteins L1, L9, L10, and S2 were found to be up-regulated in both conditions, and we postulate that these are candidate drug targets for the development of synergistic combinations with gentamicin. © 2013 American Chemical Society.