Elevated immunoglobulin E against recombinant Brugia malayi gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase in patients with bancroftian filariasis: association with tropical pulmonary eosinophilia or putative immunity

E Lobos, T B Nutman, J S Hothersall, S Moncada

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    Abstract

    A major allergen of the lymphatic filarial nematode Brugia malayi, a homologue of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GT), is involved in the pathology of tropical pulmonary eosinophilia (TPE) through its potent allergenicity and the induction of antibodies against the host pulmonary epithelium. To investigate the immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass and IgE responses to recombinant B. malayi gamma-GT, we analyzed the results obtained from 51 patients with differing clinical manifestations of bancroftian filariasis. gamma-GT-specific IgG1, rather than IgG4, was the predominant IgG subclass, particularly in patients with TPE (geomean, 6,321 ng/ml; range, 78 to 354,867 ng/ml) and was 75 times higher than in patients with elephantiasis (CP) (P <0.003) and 185 times higher than in endemic normal individuals (ENL) (P <0.010). IgG2 responses were low and IgG3 was almost absent, with no significant differences among the groups. gamma-GT-specific IgG4 responses were significantly elevated in those with subclinical microfilaremia (MF) compared to the CP and ENL groups and correlated with the presence of circulating filarial antigen (CAg). More significantly, gamma-GT-specific IgE antibody levels were strikingly elevated in patients with TPE (geomean, 681 ng/ml; range, 61 to 23,841 ng/ml) and in the ENL group (geomean, 106 ng/ml; range, 13 to 1,405 ng/ml) whereas the gamma-GT-specific IgE level was 44 and 61 times lower in those with MF and CP, respectively (P <0.001). Elevated gamma-GT-specific IgE/IgG4 ratios were demonstrated in patients with TPE (ratio, 45) and ENL (ratio, 107). Because expression of gamma-GT in Brugia infective third-stage larvae (L3) was demonstrated by immunoblot analysis, the elevated gamma-GT-specific IgE antibodies appear to be associated not only with pulmonary pathology but also with possible resistance to infection in lymphatic filariasis.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)747-53
    Number of pages693
    JournalInfect Immun
    Volume71
    Issue number2
    Publication statusPublished - 2003

    Keywords

    • Adult
    • Animals
    • Brugia malayi/*enzymology/immunology
    • Elephantiasis, Filarial/complications/*immunology/parasitology
    • Female
    • Humans
    • Hypersensitivity, Immediate/etiology
    • Immunoglobulin E/*blood/immunology
    • Immunoglobulin G/blood
    • Larva/enzymology/immunology
    • Male
    • Pulmonary Eosinophilia/*etiology/immunology/physiopathology
    • Recombinant Proteins/genetics/*immunology
    • Tropical Climate
    • gamma-Glutamyltransferase/genetics/*immunology

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