Motor neuron disease (MND) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease with no effective treatment. One of the principal pathological hallmarks is the deposition of TAR DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) in cytoplasmic inclusions. TDP-43 aggregation occurs in both familial and sporadic MND; however, the mechanism of endogenous TDP-43 aggregation in disease is incompletely understood. This study focused on the induction of cytoplasmic accumulation of endogenous TDP-43 in the motor neuronal cell line NSC-34. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stressor tunicamycin induced casein kinase 1 (CK1)-dependent cytoplasmic accumulation of endogenous TDP-43 in differentiated NSC-34 cells, as seen by immunocytochemistry. Immunoblotting showed that induction of ER stress had no effect on abundance of TDP-43 or phosphorylated TDP-43 in the NP-40/RIPA soluble fraction. However, there were significant increases in abundance of TDP-43 and phosphorylated TDP-43 in the NP-40/RIPA-insoluble, urea-soluble fraction, including high molecular weight species. In all cases, these increases were lowered by CK1 inhibition. Thus ER stress signalling, as induced by tunicamycin, causes CK1-dependent phosphorylation of TDP-43 and its consequent cytosolic accumulation.