Enlarged Vestibular Aqueduct: Disease Characterization and Exploration of Potential Prognostic Factors for Cochlear Implantation

Haroon S. Saeed, Azita Rajai, Robert Nash, Shakeel R. Saeed, Stavros M. Stivaros, Graeme Black, Iain A. Bruce

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


There is an unmet need to match the anticipated natural history of hearing loss (HL) in enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA) with clinical management strategies. The objectives of this study are therefore to provide a detailed case characterization of an EVA cohort and explore the relationship between candidate prognostic factors and timing of cochlear implant (CI) surgery.

Study Design:
A multicenter retrospective review of patients diagnosed with EVA.

Patient data recruitment across three CI centers in the UK.

One hundred fifty patients with a radiological diagnosis of EVA from January 1995 to January 2021.

Main Outcome Measures:
Age at audiological candidacy for CI and age at first implant surgery.

EVA was predominately a bilateral condition (144/ 150) with increased prevalence in women (M:F, 64:86). 51.7% of patients failed new-born hearing screening, with 65.7% having HL diagnosed by 1 year. Initial moderate to severe and severe to profound HL were reported most frequently. In 123 patients, median age that audiological candidacy for CI was met for at least one ear was 2.75 years. Median age at first CI was 5 years (140/150).

Pendred syndrome (confirmed in 73 patients) and ethnicity, were not significantly associated with earlier CI surgery. Multivariate linear regression demonstrated that male patients have first CI surgery significantly earlier than females (coefficient −0.43, 95% CI [−0.82, −0.05), p-value = 0.028).

This large UK EVA cohort provides evidence that patients should be closely monitored for CI candidacy within the first 3 years of life. Significantly, male gender is emerging as an independent prognostic factor for earlier assessment and first CI surgery.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere563-e570
Pages (from-to)e563-e570
JournalOtology and Neurotology
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2022


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