Transport processes of many structures inside living cells display anomalous diffusion, such as endosomes in eukaryotic cells. They are also heterogeneous in space and time. Large ensembles of single particle trajectories allow the heterogeneities to be quantified in detail and provide insights for mathematical modelling. The development of accurate mathematical models for heterogeneous dynamics has the potential to enable the design and optimization of various technological applications, for example, the design of effective drug delivery systems. The central questions in the analysis of anomalous dynamics are ergodicity and statistical ageing which allow for selecting the proper model for the description. It is believed that non-ergodicity and ageing come together. However, we found that the anomalous dynamics of endosomes is paradoxical, since it is ergodic but shows ageing. We show that this behaviour is caused by ensemble heterogeneity that, in addition to space-time heterogeneity within a single trajectory, is an inherent property of endosomal motion. Our work introduces novel approaches for the analysis and modelling of heterogeneous dynamics.
|Publication status||Accepted/In press - 25 May 2023|