This paper analyses empirically the extent to which environmental regulation influences production location in the pig industry. The analysis is based on a general empirical location model that captures interactions between region and sector characteristics in determining production location, and data on pig production in 43 European regions. We find that while environmental regulation may not have a measurable effect on the EU pig industry location per se, it is a strong influence on the sectoral composition of the industry. Relatively highly-polluting sectors of the pig industry are attracted to relatively lax jurisdictions which become pollution-havens (hotspots of hog waste).
- pollution haven hypothesis; comparative advantage; environmental regulation; industry location; livestock industry.