Evaluating Heteronormative Attitudes and Beliefs of United Kingdom Pharmacy Educators

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United Kingdom (UK) pharmacy curricula have previously been shown to be hetero- and cis-normative. A possible reason may be that educators hold binary beliefs and attitudes toward sexuality and gender norms, and that these are manifest in teaching practice and discourse. The purpose of this study is to investigate these attitudes and beliefs. A cross-sectional survey using the 16-item heteronormative attitudes and beliefs scale (HABS) was distributed to educators at UK universities teaching on undergraduate Master of Pharmacy degree programs, with 123 surveys returned. Total HABS scores and subscales measuring normative beliefs (NB) and essential sex and gender (ESG) were calculated with non-parametric statistics comparing scores based on demographic and contextual characteristics of the sample. The mean total HABS score was 40.06, for NB it was 16.46 and ESG it was 23.60 indicating moderate-low normative beliefs and attitudes. Two demographic categories reached statistical significance: gender (p = .049 total HABS score) and sexuality (p = < .001 total HABS score, p = .008NB subscore and p = < .001 ESG subscore) (p < .05) indicating that female and queer identifying educators have significantly lower heteronormative attitudes and beliefs. Findings indicate that UK pharmacy educators do not hold normative values and beliefs; curricula are influenced by the normative structures within higher education.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Homosexuality
Early online date7 Jul 2023
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 7 Jul 2023


  • Pharmacy
  • cisnormativity
  • curriculum
  • heteronormativity
  • inclusive education
  • queer pedagogy


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