Evaluating the effect of functionally graded materials on bone remodeling around dental implants

Mohadese Rajaeirad, Ashkan Fakharifar, Mohammad hossein zadeh Posti, Mohammad Khorsandi, David c. Watts, Alaaeldin Elraggal, Abdelhak Ouldyerou, Ali Merdji, Sandipan Roy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

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Objectives: This study evaluates the potential for osseointegration and remodeling of customized dental implants made from Titanium-Hydroxyapatite Functionally Graded Material (Ti-HAP FGM) with optimized geometry, using the finite element method (FEM).

Methods: The study utilized CT scan images to model and assemble various geometrical designs of dental implants in a mandibular slice. The mechanical properties of Ti-HAP FGMs were computed by varying volume fractions (VF) of hydroxyapatite (1-20%), and a bone remodeling algorithm was used to evaluate the biomechanical characteristics of the ultimate bone configuration in the peri-implant tissue.

Results: The findings of the FEA reveal that osseointegration improves with changes in the density and mechanical properties of the bone surrounding Ti-HAP implants, which are influenced by the varying VF of hydroxyapatite in the FGM.

Significance: Increasing the hydroxyapatite fraction improves osseointegration, and appropriate length and diameter selection of Ti-HAP dental implants contribute to their stability and longevity.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)858-868
JournalDental Materials
Issue number5
Early online date14 Apr 2024
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2024


  • Dental implants
  • Bone remodeling
  • Functionally graded materials (FGMs)
  • Stress shielding
  • Finite element method (FEM)


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