Experimental and FE shear-bonding strength at core/veneer interfaces in bilayered ceramics

Nadia Ereifej, Flávia Pires Rodrigues, Nick Silikas, David C. Watts

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


    Objectives: To compare the bond strength of a ceramic veneer material to two different ceramic core materials using shear strength testing and finite element analysis (FEA). Methods: 15 blocks of ceramic cores were made of each of IPS e.max ZirCAD (Ivoclar-Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein) (ZirCAD) and lithium disilicate IPS e.max CAD (LS). These were veneered using IPS e.max Ceram (Ceram) according to the manufacturers' instructions. Samples were then mounted, placed inside a shear testing jig and loaded at their core/veneer interfaces with a universal testing machine. Fractured specimens were then examined fractographically at 45×. An independent t-test and a Mann-Whitney U test were used to detect differences in bond strengths and the patterns of failure between the two groups, respectively (p > 0.05). Two-dimensional plane stress FE-models were constructed and subjected to shear loading simulating the experimental conditions. Results: Mean shear stresses (MPa) were 28.8 (9.5) for ZirCAD/Ceram and 29.1 (8.3) for LS/Ceram. Differences were not statistically significant. Fracture patterns were significantly different between the 2 groups as all ZirCAD/Ceram samples broke adhesively at their interface while LS/Ceram samples broke cohesively in the veneer or the core or had mixed adhesive/cohesive failure. Stress distributions in the FEA models were also different, corresponding to the variable fracture patterns in the 2 groups. Significance: Although shear stresses were similar, fractographic analysis and finite element modeling suggested better bonding between the veneering ceramic and the glass-ceramic than to the zirconia cores. Improved bonding techniques are necessary to prevent clinical delamination of veneered zirconia restorations. © 2011 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)590-597
    Number of pages7
    JournalDental Materials
    Issue number6
    Publication statusPublished - Jun 2011


    • Bilayered ceramics
    • Bonding
    • Core/veneer
    • Finite element analysis
    • Glass-ceramics
    • Shear testing
    • Zirconia


    Dive into the research topics of 'Experimental and FE shear-bonding strength at core/veneer interfaces in bilayered ceramics'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this