Explicit modelling of slag infiltration and shell formation during mould oscillation in continuous casting

Pavel E. Ramirez-Lopez, Peter D. Lee, Kenneth C. Mills

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


    A mathematical model of the continuous casting process, which explicitly incorporates the presence of slag, molten steel, heat transfer through the mould walls, and shell solidification, is presented. The model is based on the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations for the multiphase slag-steel-air system under transient conditions, including tracking of the interface between these phases. The use of an extremely fine mesh (100μm) in the meniscus region allows, for the first time, the direct calculation of liquid slag infiltration into the shell-mould gap. Elsewhere, a coarser mesh is used to capture the influence of the metal flow on the overall solution. Predictions are compared with prior, cold model experiments and high temperature mould simulators. Excellent agreement was found for features such as slag film development and heat flux variations during the oscillation cycle. Furthermore, predictions of shell thicknesses and heat fluxes for a variety of simulated casting speeds are also in good agreement with plant measurements. These findings provide an improved fundamental understanding of the basic principles involved in slag infiltration and solidification inside the mould and how these affect key process parameters, such as powder consumption and shell growth. These parameters have a decisive effect on the formation of oscillations marks and transverse cracks, which are a major source of defects in the casting practice. © 2010 ISIJ.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)425-434
    Number of pages9
    JournalISIJ international
    Issue number3
    Publication statusPublished - 2010


    • Continuous casting
    • Modelling
    • Mould oscillation
    • Shell solidification
    • Slab casting
    • Slage infiltration


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