STM, scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) and LEED have been used to investigate the interaction of structural elements associated with rutile TiO2(100)1 × 3. These include the O-vacancy-induced 1 × 3 reconstruction and steps in the two principal azimuths. LEED data from a 2.6° vicinal sample show splitting of the primary and 1 3rd order beams in the  direction and not the vicinal off-cut  direction. A simple spot-profile analysis reveals that the up-down steps formed have a height of 4.59± 0.05 Å and a periodicity of 45±10 Å. The STM(S) results image the microfacet morphology of the 1 × 3 reconstruction suggested by diffraction measurements. They also provide an explanation for the stabilisation of up-down steps, which involves maximising the area of the (110) microfacets.