Decidual spiral arteriole (SpA) remodeling is essential to ensure optimal uteroplacental blood flow during human pregnancy, yet very little is known about the regulatory mechanisms. Uterine decidual NK (dNK) cells and macrophages infiltrate the SpAs and are proposed to initiate remodeling before colonization by extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs); however, the trigger for their infiltration is unknown. Using human first trimester placenta, decidua, primary dNK cells, and macrophages, we tested the hypothesis that EVTs activate SpA endothelial cells to secrete chemokines that have the potential to recruit maternal immune cells into SpAs. Gene array, real-time PCR, and ELISA analyses showed that treatment of endothelial cells with EVT conditioned medium significantly increased production of two chemokines, CCL14 and CXCL6. CCL14 induced chemotaxis of both dNK cells and decidual macrophages, whereas CXCL6 also induced dNK cell migration. Analysis of the decidua basalis from early pregnancy demonstrated expression of CCL14 and CXCL6 by endothelial cells in remodeling SpAs, and their cognate receptors are present in both dNK cells and macrophages. Neutralization studies identified IL-6 and CXCL8 as factors secreted by EVTs that induce endothelial cell CCL14 and CXCL6 expression. This study has identified intricate crosstalk between EVTs, SpA cells, and decidual immune cells that governs their recruitment to SpAs in the early stages of remodeling and has identified potential key candidate factors involved. This provides a new understanding of the interactions between maternal and fetal cells during early placentation and highlights novel avenues for research to understand defective SpA remodeling and consequent pregnancy pathology.