Fabrication Cost Analysis for Contactless 3-D ICs

Ioannis Papistas, Dimitrios Velenis, Vasileios Pavlidis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The manufacturing cost of contactless 3-D circuits
with inductive links is explored for the first time. The high-volume
manufacturing (HVM) cost of contactless 3-D ICs is modeled
by considering the on-chip inductor area and other important
parameters, such as the coupling efficiency, which depend upon
specific steps of the fabrication process. Inductive links based
on current mode logic (CML) transceivers are simulated across
a number of integration scenarios in a commercial 65 nm
CMOS technology process, thereby evaluating the cost of these
manufacturing options for performance and power objectives. Assuming a 10 Gbps data rate, the power and area of the inductive link are determined for wafer-to-wafer and die-to-wafer integration and communication distances in the range of 5 um (face-to-face) to 120 um (face-to-back). A HVM cost estimation for each investigated inductive link scheme is provided for these integration approaches. Additional processing steps attributed to 3-D integration increase the aggregate cost by 2.5% to 4.5% for a case study of a three-tier stack, compared to a conventional 2-D process. Moreover, the yield is explored for each integration approach considering the inductor area for contactless 3-D ICs.
Original languageEnglish
JournalIEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 25 Mar 2019


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