Fermentative 2-carbon metabolism produces carcinogenic levels of acetaldehyde in Candida albicans.

E Marttila, P Bowyer, D Sanglard, J Uittamo, P Kaihovaara, M Salaspuro, M Richardson, Rautemaa-Richardson Richardson

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    Abstract

    UNLABELLED: Acetaldehyde is a carcinogenic product of alcohol fermentation and metabolism in microbes associated with cancers of the upper digestive tract. In yeast acetaldehyde is a by-product of the pyruvate bypass that converts pyruvate into acetyl-Coenzyme A (CoA) during fermentation. THE AIMS OF OUR STUDY WERE: (i) to determine the levels of acetaldehyde produced by Candida albicans in the presence of glucose in low oxygen tension in vitro; (ii) to analyse the expression levels of genes involved in the pyruvate-bypass and acetaldehyde production; and (iii) to analyse whether any correlations exist between acetaldehyde levels, alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme activity or expression of the genes involved in the pyruvate-bypass. Candida albicans strains were isolated from patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (n = 5), autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) patients with chronic oral candidosis (n = 5), and control patients (n = 5). The acetaldehyde and ethanol production by these isolates grown under low oxygen tension in the presence of glucose was determined, and the expression of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH1 and ADH2), pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC11), aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALD6) and acetyl-CoA synthetase (ACS1 and ACS2) and Adh enzyme activity were analysed. The C. albicans isolates produced high levels of acetaldehyde from glucose under low oxygen tension. The acetaldehyde levels did not correlate with the expression of ADH1, ADH2 or PDC11 but correlated with the expression of down-stream genes ALD6 and ACS1. Significant differences in the gene expressions were measured between strains isolated from different patient groups. Under low oxygen tension ALD6 and ACS1, instead of ADH1 or ADH2, appear the most reliable indicators of candidal acetaldehyde production from glucose.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)281-291
    Number of pages10
    JournalMolecular oral microbiology
    Volume28
    Issue number4
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Aug 2013

    Keywords

    • APECED
    • Candida albicans
    • acetaldehyde
    • oral candidosis
    • oral carcinoma

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