Flexural Strength and Hardness of Filler-Reinforced PMMA Targeted for Denture Base Application

Abdulaziz Alhotan, Julian Yates, Saleh Zidan, Julfikar Haider, Nick Silikas

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The aim of this work was to evaluate the flexural strength and surface hardness of heatcured Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) modified by the addition of ZrO 2 nanoparticles, TiO 2 nanoparticles, and E-glass fibre at different wt.% concentrations. Specimens were fabricated and separated into four groups (n = 10) to measure both flexural strength and surface hardness. Group C was the control group. The specimens in the remaining three groups differed according to the ratio of filler to weight of PMMA resin (1.5%, 3%, 5%, and 7%). A three-point bending test was performed to determine the flexural strength, while the surface hardness was measured using the Vickers hardness. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) was employed to observe the fractured surface of the specimens. The flexural strength was significantly improved in the groups filled with 3 wt.% ZrO 2 and 5 and 7 wt.% E-glass fibre in comparison to Group C. All the groups displayed a significantly higher surface hardness than Group C, with the exception of the 1.5% TiO 2 and 1.5% ZrO 2 groups. The optimal filler concentrations to enhance the flexural strength of PMMA resin were between 3–5% ZrO 2, 1.5% TiO 2, and 3–7% E-glass fibre. Furthermore, for all composites, a filler concentration of 3 wt.% and above would significantly improve hardness.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2659
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 19 May 2021


  • E-glass fibre
  • Flexural strength
  • PMMA
  • Surface hardness
  • TiO nanoparticle
  • ZrO nanoparticle


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