Frontline Encounters of the AI Kind: An Extended Service Encounter Framework

Stacey G. Robinson, Chiara Orsingher, Linda Alkire, Arne De Keyser, Michael Giebelhausen, Nadia Papamichail, Poja Shams, Mohamed Sobhy Temerak

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Artificial intelligence (AI) is radically transforming frontline service encounters, with AI increasingly playing the role of employee or customer. Programmed to speak or write like a human, AI is poised to usher in a frontline service revolution. No longer will frontline encounters between customer and employee be simply human-tohuman; rather, researchers must consider an evolved paradigm where each actor could be either human or AI. Further complicating this 2x2 framework is whether the human, either customer or employee, recognizes when they are interacting with a non-human exchange partner. Accordingly, we develop an evolved service encounter framework and, in doing so, introduce the concept of counterfeit service, interspecific service (AIto-human), interAI service (AI-to-AI), and offer a research agenda focused on the implementation of AI in dyadic service exchanges.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)366-376
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Business Research
Early online date24 Oct 2019
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2020


  • Artificial intelligence (AI)
  • Counterfeit
  • Customer experience
  • Frontline employee
  • Service encounter
  • Technology


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