Functional evolution of a cis-regulatory module

Michael Z. Ludwig, Arnar Palsson, Elena Alekseeva, Casey M. Bergman, Janaki Nathan, Martin Kreitman

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


    Lack of knowledge about how regulatory regions evolve in relation to their structure-function may limit the utility of comparative sequence analysis in deciphering cis-regulatory sequences. To address this we applied reverse genetics to carry out a functional genetic complementation analysis of a eukaryotic cis-regulatory module - the even-skipped stripe 2 enhancer - from four Drosophila species. The evolution of this enhancer is non-clock-like, with important functional differences between closely related species and functional convergence between distantly related species. Functional divergence is attributable to differences in activation levels rather than spatiotemporal control of gene expression. Our findings have implications for understanding enhancer structure-function, mechanisms of speciation and computational identification of regulatory modules. © 2005 Ludwig et al.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)0588-0598
    Number of pages10
    JournalPLoS Biology
    Issue number4
    Publication statusPublished - Apr 2005


    Dive into the research topics of 'Functional evolution of a cis-regulatory module'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this