Functional interactions between innate lymphoid cells and adaptive immunity

Gregory F Sonnenberg, Matthew Hepworth

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Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are enriched at barriers surfaces of the mammalian body where they rapidly respond to host, microbial or environmental stimuli to promote immunity or tissue homeostasis, but also become dysregulated in multiple human diseases. Over the past decade substantial advances have been made in identifying the heterogeneity and functional diversity of ILCs, which has revealed striking similarities to T cell subsets. However, emerging evidence indicates that ILCs also have a complex role in directly influencing the adaptive immune response in the context of development, homeostasis, infection or inflammation. In turn, adaptive immunity reciprocally regulates ILCs, which indicates that these interactions are a crucial determinant of immune responses within tissues. Here, we summarize our current understanding of functional interactions between ILCs and the adaptive immune system, discuss limitations and future areas of investigation, and consider the potential for these interactions to be therapeutically harnessed to benefit human health.
Original languageEnglish
JournalNature reviews. Immunology
Publication statusPublished - 26 Jul 2019


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