Gender and social outcomes of WASH interventions: Synthesis of research evidence

Biljana Macura, Sarah Dickin, Waddington, Liera, Soto, Orlando, Ella Foggitt, Pross, McArthur, Fadhila, Del Duca, Njoroge

Research output: Working paper


Safely managed water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) are fundamental for human health and wellbeing and are thought to contribute to a range of positive outcomes related to education, livelihoods, dignity, safety, and gender equality. However, gender and other social categories (e.g. age, ethnicity, caste, disability, marital status) can mediate who benefits from WASH services and in which ways. As progress in gaining access to safe WASH services has not occurred equally, there has been a focus on mainstreaming gender equality and social inclusion (GESI) in interventions. Despite awareness in the sector of the importance of promoting gender and socially inclusive WASH services, evaluations of interventions focus largely on technical or health outcomes, while social outcomes are not included.

This systematic evidence synthesis aimed to collate evidence on the impact of WASH interventions on GESI outcomes in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). It also aimed to synthesise evidence on violence-related outcomes, and to advance understanding of barriers to, and facilitators of, change in violence-related outcomes in the context of WASH interventions. It synthesises evidence on time savings and alternate uses of time associated with WASH interventions.
Original languageEnglish
Place of PublicationOxford
Publication statusPublished - 2023
Externally publishedYes


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