Generating transgenic frog embryos by Restriction Enzyme Mediated Integration (REMI)

Shoko Ishibashi, Kristen L. Kroll, Enrique Amaya

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


    Here we present a protocol for generating transgenic embryos in Xenopus laevis and Xenopus tropicalis. The method includes three steps: (1) The preparation of high-speed egg extracts, which facilitates the replacement of protamines in sperm nuclei with nucleosomes and decondenses the chromatin of sperm nuclei; (2) The isolation of sperm nuclei; and (3) The mixing of sperm nuclei, restriction enzyme, and high-speed extract in vitro, following by nuclear transplantation into unfertilized eggs to generate the transgenic embryos. This procedure generates non-mosaic transgenic embryos at high frequency and efficiency. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)185-203
    Number of pages18
    JournalMethods in Molecular Biology
    Publication statusPublished - 2012


    • Restriction enzyme mediated integration
    • Transgenesis
    • Xenopus


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