Glimpses of Tadmūr before Alexander: the pre-Hellenistic evidence

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This contribution draws together the archaeological and textual evidence for ancient Tadmūr (the later Palmyra) in the pre-Hellenistic period. The textual material is mainly in Akkadian of the second millennium BC (Old Assyrian trade archives, the Mari letters, Emar, and later Assyrian texts of Tiglath-Pileser I). All of these materials, and the small amount of archaeological evidence, suggest that Tadmūr was a minor though well-known waypoint on a major route between Mesopotamia and western Syria in the second millennium BC. In the first millennium BC it fell into obscurity, to emerge again in the Hellenistic age. Discussion is included of the confused Old Testament and later Jewish traditions about Tadmūr, which connect it with Solomon.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationThe Oxford Handbook of Palmyra
EditorsRubina Raja
Place of PublicationOxford
PublisherOxford University Press
Number of pages14
ISBN (Electronic)9780190858148
ISBN (Print)9780190858117
Publication statusPublished - 23 Jan 2024

Publication series

NameOxford Handbooks
PublisherOxford University Press


  • Palmyra
  • Tadmūr
  • Syria
  • cuneiform sources
  • Kaniš
  • Mari
  • Emar
  • 1 Kings
  • 2 Chronicles


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