Graphene and the universality of the quantum Hall effect

A. Tzalenchuk, T. J B M Janssen, O. Kazakova, J. M. Williams, S. Kubatkin, S. Lara-Avila, K. Moth-Poulsen, R. Yakimova, T. Bjørnholm, N. E. Fletcher, R. Goebel, S. Kopylov, V. Fal'Ko

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review


    The quantum Hall effect allows the standard for resistance to be defined in terms of the elementary charge and Planck's constant alone. The effect comprises the quantization of the Hall resistance in two-dimensional electron systems in rational fractions of RK=h/e2=25812.8074434(84) Ω (Mohr P. J. et al., Rev. Mod. Phys., 84 (2012) 1527), the resistance quantum. Despite 30 years of research into the quantum Hall effect, the level of precision necessary for metrology, a few parts per billion, has been achieved only in silicon and III-V heterostructure devices. In this lecture we show that graphene - a single layer of carbon atoms - beats these well-established semiconductor materials as the system of choice for the realisation of the quantum resistance standard. Here we shall briefly describe graphene technology, discuss the structure and electronic properties of graphene, including the unconventional quantum Hall effect and then present in detail the route, which led to the most precise quantum Hall resistance universality test ever performed.

    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationProceedings of the International School of Physics "Enrico Fermi": Metrology and Physical Constants
    Number of pages28
    Publication statusPublished - 2013
    EventInternational School of Physics "Enrico Fermi" on Metrology and Physical Constants - Varenna, Italy
    Duration: 17 Jul 201227 Jul 2012


    ConferenceInternational School of Physics "Enrico Fermi" on Metrology and Physical Constants

    Research Beacons, Institutes and Platforms

    • National Graphene Institute


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