Background Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary brain malignancy in adults, yet survival outcomes remain poor. First line treatment is well established, however disease invariably recurs and improving prognosis is challenging. With the aim of personalizing therapy at recurrence, we have established a high content screening (HCS) platform to analyze the sensitivity profile of seven patient-derived cancer stem cell lines to 83 FDA-approved chemotherapy drugs, with and without irradiation. Methods Seven cancer stem cell lines were derived from patients with GBM and, along with the established cell line U87-MG, each patient-derived line was cultured in tandem in serumfree conditions as adherent monolayers and three-dimensional neurospheres. Chemotherapeutics were screened at multiple concentrations and cells double-stained to observe their effect on both cell death and proliferation. Sensitivity was classified using high-throughput algorithmic image analysis. Results Cell line specific drug responses were observed across the seven patient-derived cell lines. Few agents were seen to have radio-sensitizing effects, yet some drug classes showed amarked difference in efficacy between monolayers and neurospheres. In vivo validation of six drugs suggested that cell death readout in a three-dimensional culture scenario is a more physiologically relevant screening model and could be used effectively to assess the chemosensitivity of patient-derived GBM lines. Conclusion The study puts forward a number of non-standard chemotherapeutics that could be useful in the treatment of recurrent GBM, namely mitoxantrone, bortezomib and actinomycin D, whilst demonstrating the potential of HCS to be used for personalized treatment based on the chemosensitivity profile of patient tumor cells.