Hypercapnia in COPD: Causes, Consequences, and Therapy

Balázs Csoma, Maria Rosaria Vulpi, Silvano Dragonieri, Andrew Bentley, Timothy Felton, Zsófia Lázár, Andras Bikov

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive respiratory disorder that may lead to gas exchange abnormalities, including hypercapnia. Chronic hypercapnia is an independent risk factor of mortality in COPD, leading to epithelial dysfunction and impaired lung immunity. Moreover, chronic hypercapnia affects the cardiovascular physiology, increases the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and promotes muscle wasting and musculoskeletal abnormalities. Noninvasive ventilation is a widely used technique to remove carbon dioxide, and several studies have investigated its role in COPD. In the present review, we aim to summarize the causes and effects of chronic hypercapnia in COPD. Furthermore, we discuss the use of domiciliary noninvasive ventilation as a treatment option for hypercapnia while highlighting the controversies within the evidence. Finally, we provide some insightful clinical recommendations and draw attention to possible future research areas.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Clinical Medicine
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2 Jun 2022


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