Infection of resistant or susceptible mice with Trichuris muris provokes mesenteric lymph node responses which are polarized towards Th2 or Th1, respectively. These responses are well documented in the literature. In contrast, little is known about the local responses occurring within the infected intestine. Through microarray analyses, we demonstrate that the gene expression profile of infected gut tissue differs according to whether the parasite is expelled or not. Genes differentially regulated postinfection in resistant BALB/c mice include several antimicrobial genes, in particular, intelectin (Itln). In contrast, analyses in AKR mice which ultimately progress to chronic infection provide evidence for a Th1-dominated mucosa with up-regulated expression of genes regulated by gamma interferon. Increases in the expression of genes associated with tryptophan metabolism were also apparent with the coinduction of tryptophanyl tRNA synthetase (Wars) and indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (Indo). With the emerging literature on the role of these gene products in the suppression of T-cell responses in vitro and in vivo, their up-regulated expression here may suggest a role for tryptophan metabolism in the parasite survival strategy. Copyright © 2005, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.