1. Neurotrophins are molecules that regulate the survival, development and maintenance of specific functions in different populations of nerve cells. 2. In the present work, we studied the localization, at the cellular level, of the different neurotrophins and their receptors within the rat retina in control and after ischemia reperfusion of the retina. We found variations in the localization of some of these molecules depending on the reperfusion time of the retina after the ischemic lesion. 3. Thus it is suggested that the changes in the distribution and concentration of neurotrophins and their receptors caused by ischemia are protective reactions related to neuronal damage and synaptic reorganization.