Immunological Tolerance, Pregnancy, and Preeclampsia: The Roles of Semen Microbes and the Father

Louise C Kenny, Douglas B Kell

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


    Although it is widely considered, in many cases, to involve two separable stages (poor placentation followed by oxidative stress/inflammation), the precise originating causes of preeclampsia (PE) remain elusive. We have previously brought together some of the considerable evidence that a (dormant) microbial component is commonly a significant part of its etiology. However, apart from recognizing, consistent with this view, that the many inflammatory markers of PE are also increased in infection, we had little to say about immunity, whether innate or adaptive. In addition, we focused on the gut, oral and female urinary tract microbiomes as the main sources of the infection. We here marshall further evidence for an infectious component in PE, focusing on the immunological tolerance characteristic of pregnancy, and the well-established fact that increased exposure to the father's semen assists this immunological tolerance. As well as these benefits, however, semen is not sterile, microbial tolerance mechanisms may exist, and we also review the evidence that semen may be responsible for inoculating the developing conceptus (and maybe the placenta) with microbes, not all of which are benign. It is suggested that when they are not, this may be a significant cause of PE. A variety of epidemiological and other evidence is entirely consistent with this, not least correlations between semen infection, infertility and PE. Our view also leads to a series of other, testable predictions. Overall, we argue for a significant paternal role in the development of PE through microbial infection of the mother via insemination.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)239
    JournalFrontiers in Medicine
    Early online date4 Jan 2018
    Publication statusPublished - Jan 2018


    • Journal Article

    Research Beacons, Institutes and Platforms

    • Manchester Institute of Biotechnology


    Dive into the research topics of 'Immunological Tolerance, Pregnancy, and Preeclampsia: The Roles of Semen Microbes and the Father'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this