In situ X-ray observations of transient states in arc weld pools

Fan Wu, Ken Vidar Falch, Michael Drakopoulous, Wajira Mirihanage

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Metallic alloys coalesce via extremely rapid melting and subsequent solidification to form fusion welded joints. The melt pool evolution in melting and solidification sequences during the welding process determines the formation of the final weld joint shape, microstructure and defects. The scientific insight on weld pool evolution and related phenomena can be a key contribution to enhance structural integrity and resilience of the welded structures or components. However, inherent complexity with multi-physics phenomena, associated high temperatures and the rapidness of the processes make direct experimental investigation of welding is extremely demanding. Thus, internal flow behaviour during welding or other melt-pool-based metal processing such as additive manufacturing remains unclear and hinders progression to process optimisation. In this contribution we report the observation of melt pool dynamics that take place during electric arc welding, obtained through in situ synchrotron imaging at millisecond scale. The analysis flow patterns along with the quantified weld pool surface dynamics revealed us to how different contributing forces dictate the flow conditions over the distinct durations of the relatively short existence of the liquid phase. Our preliminary results suggest the existence of arc, surface tension and gravity dominant regimes during the evaluation of the weld pool. Further, we present our observations on how different welding parameters influence these regimes and develop into different transient conditions.
Original languageEnglish
Article number012071
JournalIOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 22 Jun 2020


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