Individual cognitive-behavior therapy in the treatment of hallucinations and delusions: A review

Gillian Haddock, Nicholas Tarrier, William Spaulding, Lawrence Yusupoff, Caroline Kinney, Eilis McCarthy

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


    The limitations of biochemical treatments in reducing the severity of hallucinations and delusions has led to an increased interest in the investigation of psychological treatments for these symptoms. These investigations have spanned the last 4 decades and have covered a range of psychological approaches from psychoanalytically oriented psychotherapy to behavioral approaches. More recently, findings that some psychotherapies are not effective treatments for psychosis and that cognitive-behavior therapy can be an effective treatment for neurotic disorders have led to increasing interest in the investigation of the effectiveness of cognitive-behavior therapy for psychosis. This review describes and evaluates the research on the cognitive-behavioral treatment of hallucinations and delusions and describes the cognitive models from which the treatments have developed. The conclusion is that, on the whole, the literature provides fairly strong evidence for the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral approaches in the management of chronic psychotic disorders and associated symptoms, although there are a number of areas where further development is necessary.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)821-838
    Number of pages17
    JournalClinical Psychology Review
    Issue number7
    Publication statusPublished - Nov 1998


    • Adaptation, Psychological
    • Adult
    • psychology: Anxiety
    • Chronic Disease
    • methods: Cognitive Therapy
    • etiology: Delusions
    • Female
    • diagnosis: Hallucinations
    • Humans
    • Male
    • Middle Aged
    • complications: Schizophrenia
    • Schizophrenic Psychology
    • Severity of Illness Index
    • Treatment Outcome


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