Influence of curing modes on monomer elution, sorption and solubility of dual-cure resin-cements

Mohammed Aldhafyan, Nikolaos Silikas, David C. Watts

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: To explore the effect of two curing modes, for dual-cure resin cements, on their monomer elution, water sorption and solubility after 30 d water storage and 30 d dry reconditioning. Methods: Eight dual-cure resin-cements were investigated (Bifix SE, Nexus Third Generation, PANAVIA SA, PANAVIA V5, RelyX Ultimate Universal, RelyX Unicem 2, RelyX Universal and SpeedCEM Plus). Six disk-shaped specimens were made per curing mode: light-cure (LC) versus self-cure (SC) to measure amounts of eluted monomers after 30 d of water storage at 37 °C. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC MS/MS) was performed to identify and quantify three eluted monomers (Bis-GMA, UDMA and TEGDMA). Water sorption/ solubility specimens were prepared according to ISO 4049. Specimens from each curing mode (LC/SC) were immersed separately in distilled water for 30 d and then reconditioned for 30 d; all at 37 °C. Mass change was measured at different time intervals. Data were analyzed via one-way ANOVA, Tukey post-hoc tests and independent sample t-tests (α = 0.05). Results: After 30 d of water storage, the three monomers Bis-GMA, UDMA and TEGDMA were detected in water. All monomers showed a variable extent of elution into water and were significantly higher (p < 0.0001) with SC compared to LC curing modes. BSE had the highest quantity of eluted monomers. After 30 d of water sorption (μg/mm 3), all rein-cements showed significantly higher sorption (p < 0.05) of SC compared to LC curing modes except for PV5, RXU and CEM (p > 0.05). After 30 d of water solubility (μg/mm 3), all resin-cements showed significantly higher solubility (p < 0.0001) of SC compared to LC curing mode. BSE had the highest water sorption and solubility. The total amounts of eluted monomers correlated positively with solubility: r 2 = 0.95 for LC and r 2 = 0.93 for SC. Significance: Whenever light access is possible, light curing remains beneficial to reduce the extent of resin degradation and related properties of dual-cure resin cements. BSE showed statistically the highest extent of eluted monomers, sorption and solubility.

Original languageEnglish
JournalDental Materials
Early online date24 Mar 2022
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2022


  • Curing modes
  • Dual-cure cements
  • Elution
  • Liquid chromatography
  • Mass spectrometry
  • Monomer
  • Solubility
  • Sorption


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