Influence of Social Support, Financial Status, and Lifestyle on the Disparity Between Inflammation and Disability in Rheumatoid Arthritis

James M Gwinnutt, Sam Norton, Kimme L Hyrich, Mark Lunt, Bernard Combe, Nathalie Rincheval, Adeline Ruyssen-Witrand, Bruno Fautrel, Daniel F McWilliams, David A Walsh, Elena Nikiphorou, Patrick D W Kiely, Adam Young, Jacqueline R Chipping, Alex MacGregor, Suzanne M M Verstappen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To investigate how social support, financial status, and lifestyle influence the development of excess disability in rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

METHODS: Data were obtained from the Étude et Suivi des Polyarthrites Indifférenciées Récentes (ESPOIR) cohort study of people with RA. A previous analysis identified groups with similar inflammation trajectories but markedly different disability over 10 years; those in the higher disability trajectory groups were defined as having "excess disability." Self-reported data regarding contextual factors (social support, financial situation, lifestyle) were obtained from participants, and they completed patient-reported outcome measures (pain, fatigue, anxiety, depression) at baseline. The direct effect of the contextual factors on excess disability and the effect mediated by patient-reported outcome measures were assessed using structural equation models. Findings were validated in 2 independent data sets (Norfolk Arthritis Register [NOAR], Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Network [ERAN]).

RESULTS: Of 538 included ESPOIR participants (mean age ± SD 48.3 ± 12.2 years; 79.2% women), 200 participants (37.2%) were in the excess disability group. Less social support (β = 0.17 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.08, 0.26]), worse financial situation (β = 0.24 [95% CI 0.14, 0.34]), less exercise (β = 0.17 [95% CI 0.09-0.25]), and less education (β = 0.15 [95% CI 0.06, 0.23]) were associated with excess disability group membership; smoking, alcohol consumption, and body mass index were not. Fatigue and depression mediated a small proportion of these effects. Similar results were seen in NOAR and ERAN.

CONCLUSION: Greater emphasis is needed on the economic and social contexts of individuals with RA at presentation; these factors might influence disability over the following decade.

Original languageEnglish
JournalArthritis Care & Research
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 4 Aug 2022

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