We utilize the institution-based view to study the effect of home institutions on the internationalization of emerging economy firms. We argue that institutional support and institutional hazards co-exist and can influence firm internationalization simultaneously. However, institutional support has a stronger effect on internationalization than institutional hazards. Further, we argue that when the institutional environment is supportive of the internationalization effort, state ownership provides proximity to institutional resources and thus amplifies the relationship between institutional support and firm internationalization. However, when the institutional environment is perilous to business activities, state ownership increases dependency on the institutional environment and constrains the escape from the domestic market. Results based on the World Bank Enterprises Survey of 9,337 manufacturing firms from 81 emerging economies largely support our arguments.